Avalanche (High density variety)
The genetics of the Avalanche variety refers to advanced generations of the variety previously known as Compact x Nigeria. This variety results from the crossing of mother (dura) palms, originated from the successive backcrossing of a natural E. oleifera x E. guineensis hybrid with E. guineensis, with paternal lines originating from Nigeria (NIFOR).
The commercial seeds of the Avalanche variety, come from the second filial generation (F2) of the second backcross of a reduced growth population, originally known as the compact population, whose mother palms were planted between 1995 and 2009. These mothers are crossed with fathers descending from a population derived from the regions of Calabar, Ufuma and Aba (Nigeria), whose selection and initial improvement process was carried out in Ghana and introduced to Costa Rica in 1979. Currently, superior pisifera parents are used, from the first and second generation of breeding carried out in Costa Rica, planted between 1997 and 2010.
The palms of Avalanche stand out for having shorter leaves and trunks than the common E. guineensis varieties, so it can be planted at higher densities than conventional palms. Likewise, the bunches of this variety have a very high oil content.
Avalanche is extremely precocious and fresh fruit production commonly exceeds 30 tons per hectare by the third year of harvest under favorable management, climate and soil conditions. In plantations of small producers in Thailand with irrigation and good agronomic management, with some frequency this variety produces over 40 tons of fresh fruit per hectare in the fifth year of harvest. Similar yields are also currently being obtained in some plantations in the Caribbean region of Guatemala. The suggested planting density for Avalanche is 160 palms per hectare.